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11 September 2009

Bagi yang membutuhkan artikel dalam bahasa ingris dibidang ilmu kehutanan khususnya ekologi hutan tentang metode dan prosedur dalam kegiatan pengukuran flora.

The objective of flora field survey activities were to obtain information on floristic composition and potency of vegetation. So survey on the aspect of flora was conducted by sampling with vegetation analysis The compiled data consists of tree regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation. The sample plots are a combination of quadrates and a line of squares, where a nested sampling is found within a larger sample plot. The dimension of each plot is relatively depend on the situation and condition in the field, the area of the plot are varied starting from smallest plot (homogenous vegetation) is 20×60 m and the largest plot is 20×500 m (1 ha). For getting information on level of natural regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation, the dimension of plot are divided into several sub-plot :

  1. The sub-plot dimension for observation of regeneration trees and stranglers (woody lianas) is 20 x 20 m.
  2. The sub-plot dimension for observation of regeneration poles stage is 10 x 10 m.
  3. The sub-plot dimension for observation of regeneration saplings stage and non-tree regeneration non-woody liana, pandanus, and palms is 5 x 5 m.
  4. The sub-plot dimension for observation of regeneration seedlings stage and non tree regeneration herbaceous vegetation, shrubs, epiphytes, etc. is 2x2m.

Sample plot layout in vegetation analysis could be seen in Figure 1. Criteria or qualification for tree regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation could be seen in Table 3.


Figure 1. Illustration of the shape of sample plots in vegetation analysis for data collection


A : 2 x 2 m plot

C : 10 x 10 m dimension dimension plot

B : 5 x 5 m dimension plot

D : 20 x 20 m dimension plot

Table 1. Qualification tree regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation


The equipment and material needed in flora data collection were :

  1. Global Positioning System with an accuracy of ± 80m.
  2. Binoculars (8×40 or 10×40).
  3. Tree height measuring tool (direct optical range-finder, Abney level, Clinometer, Blume-Leiss, Haga, Christen meter, etc.).
  4. Surface Area Measurement tool: Optic Prism/ Cruze All/ Spiegel Relascope (Bitterlich technique).
  5. Compass.
  6. Aneroid (preferably digital) Altimeter with an accuracy of ± 10m.
  7. Metal/fiberglass measuring tape with a minimum length of 50m.
  8. Diameter measuring tape.
  9. Secateurs (to cut vegetation sample) for plant collection.
  10. Plastic rope, plastic bags (for plant samples).
  11. Hanging labels for plant samples.
  12. Camera (preferably digital with >2 mega-pixels).
  13. Painted bamboo stakes (1.5 m height).
  14. Sheet Form/Tally sheet, Stationery (Clipboard).
  15. Rain Coat, Field Shoes and Leech

Whereas, field data collection for vegetation aspect are as follows :

  1. Determining the position of the observation route.
  2. Using a compass to guide the route direction.
  3. Establishing a centerline of observation using 20-500 m plastic rope, and extend 10 m of rope at a 10 m interval on either side of centerline. Within the plots, establishing sub-plots with 10 x 10 m, 5 x 5 m and 2 x 2 m dimensions for observation of poles, saplings and seedlings.
  4. Beginning recording data (binomial name and number of individuals) of regenerate seedling within the 2 x 2 m nested plot, followed by recording data of non-regeneration herbaceous vegetation, shrubs, epiphytes. Recording the name of species and number of individuals.
  5. Measuring regeneration saplings within 5×5 m nested plot (record species name and number of individuals), followed by non-regeneration trees (non-woody liana, pandanus, and palms) longer than 1.5 m.
  6. Measuring the height and diameter of regeneration poles within the 10 x 10 m nested plot, and record the species binomial name. Note that the requirement of a pole is having a diameter of 10-20 cm.
  7. Measurement of regeneration trees (considered a tree when diameter >20 cm) is recorded within the 20 x 20 m plot, with the recorded data in the form of diameter, height, and species name. This is followed by recording data of woody liana (strangler) in the form of species name and number of individuals.
  8. Data is recorded on either of three types of form/tally sheets. The three types are for recording data on seedlings, saplings, poles, and trees as well as non-regeneration trees.
  9. If unable or doubtful in identifying a species in the field, then preserving a sample of the specimen for further identification. Determining and identification of species name was conducted by Herbarium Bogoriense (Research Centre for Biology, LIPI).

Variable or data were recorded from tree regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation could be seen in Table 4.

Table 2. Recording of vegetation data .


Data Analysis

For determining quantitative composition and floristic dominance from field data, vegetation analysis was conducted with the following formula (Soerianegara and Indrawan, 1995):


Importance Value Index (IVI) = RD + RF + RD (for tree and poles, totaling 300 %)

For determining score of vegetation diversity for tree regeneration and non-tree regeneration vegetation there was analysis on indexes of species diversity by using the following formula (Ludwig and Reynolds, 1988) :

1. Richness Index of Margalef (R) :


where :

S : Number of species

N : Number of individuals of all species.

2. Index of Shannon-Wiener (H’)



S : number of species

ni : total of individuals of ith species

N : total of individuals of all species

3. Index of evenness (E)


where :

E : index of evenness

H’ : diversity index of Shannon-Wiener

S : Number of species

4. Index of Dominance (D)



S : number of species

ni : total of individuals of ith species

N : total of individuals of all species

5. Volume

For determining of tree volume (only tree stage) there was analysis on volume of tree stage by using the following formula (Forestry Department, 1992 :

V = (Π * D)2/4 * H * f


V = Volume of tree

Π = 3.14

D = Diameter at breast high

H = Tree high

f = factor of tree form, 0.7

6. Tree height

Tree height is an important measurement that enables the observation of canopy structure and crown stratification within a forest. However, the measurement itself is difficult to conduct due to the limitations of measurement tools, a limited perspective of tree crowns because they overlap, etc. Therefore, those who confront the problems above prefer estimation of height. The following are examples of tools used to measure height: (1) Clinometer, (2) Hagameter, (3) Blume leiss-Carl leiss (4) Lasser Range finder. The tools above require a measurement mechanism, such as a measuring tape, however the Blume-Leiss incorporates a built-in measurement tool that uses the prism principle, resembling that found in a Theodolite.

Recording the point of measurement (POM) distance or height from the ground surface if the measurement position exceeds 1.3 m due to the presence of buttress roots, aerial or aerating roots, or oddities in trunk shape, etc. Following the POM, record the POM code, which describes why the POM position is not at 1.3 m. One example is due to the presence of a buttress (B=buttress), therefore the code is ‘B’, and so on.

Vegetation Analysis Tally Sheet for Seedling/Sapling

Picture5Notes : E = endemic species, P = Protected (endangered species)

Vegetation Analysis Tally Sheet for poles/tree

Picture6Notes : E = endemic species, P = Protected (endangered species)

Vegetation Analysis Tally Sheet for Liana / Climber / Palm Pandanus / Fern /Epiphytes / Herbaceous

Picture7Notes : E = endemic species, P = Protected (endangered species)

Importance value indexes (IVI) for regeneration and non regeneration plants

1Notes : D=Density, RDo = Relative Dominance = Relative Density, F= Frequency, RF= Relative Frequency, Do= Dominance, IVI= Importance Value Index.

Basal area, density and volume of trees


3 Komentar leave one →
  1. herbeth permalink
    5 Oktober 2009 11:21 pm

    Tak ngerti awak….., udah di coba u/ mengerti tp tak ngerti2 juga…., krn basic kali ya Bg…
    Tp indeks shanon ngerti awak…, haha

  2. zies permalink
    14 Januari 2010 8:53 am


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